DEGREE IN VETERINARY MEDICINE.

MY NAME IS MICHEL SIMON PEREZ,I WAS BORN ON 18 DECEMBER 1970, IN RANCH BOYEROS, THE HABANA.CUBA.
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- Infectious infertility in mares.

Author: Afredo Parraguirre, MVZ

This paper i in order to determine whether the use of uterine washing is useful for troubleshooting infectious infertility in mares dedicated to the reproduction.

The mares study was conducted examination (perineal evaluation, aplomos and physiological constants) general internal genitals assessment was conducted by especulo vaginal transrectal palpation and ultrasound, endometrial samples were obtained through hisopado exfoliativo for general bacteriological culture and susceptibility, developed by papanicolaou stain endometrial Pap smear.

The microorganisms that cause of uterine infection found by the general bacteriological cultivation were: Klepsiella oxitoca, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces pyogenes, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Proteus mirabilis, Klepsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomona aeuroginasa and Staphylococcus aureus. The PAP by endometrial exfoliation found neutrofilos in the smear the yeguas problem, and some of the mares witness.

Was the recelado a garañón daily the mares with infectious infertility and mares witness were uterine with physiological saline washes, washing with physiological saline and infusion of gentamicin and washing with physiological saline and infusion of sulfanilamida respectively and the reproductive reevalúo to serve, or mount natural or artificial insemination with fresh semen was consideration of gestation sixteen days.

Introduction:

The study and treatment of infertility in any kind, require skill and knowledge to correlate the endócrinas with the clinical findings functions. The assessment of fertility in the mare is based on clinical findings obtained to determine reproductive status, which helps the selection of optimal handling and therapeutic procedures to follow.

There are many factors that may affect fertility, is said that the most frequent problems that cause infectious infertility are: distócicos births, bad perineal formation, excessive handling in the monitoring of events in the estro, poor accommodation and the lack of the reproductive system of the female and male at toilet of it copula.

To focus the problems of infertility in mares found there neoplastic and infectious, hormonal diseases still infertility the problem more lost economic generates haras dedicated to reproduction.

The gestation of the Mare (325 days +/-15 days) is determinant in the equine, industry because when investing in food and management of females and studs for one year and a foal does not occur in the course of, the benefit is affected drastically generate discharges without income from the sale of a foal occurred in that year always exploitation to engage in the production of potros. In other circumstances, mares with outstanding sports are not dedicated to playing in its best years and is intended to devote them to pregnancy at advanced age when your perineal formation induces uterine, infections will result infectious infertility.

The relationship between the infertility of the Mare and bacterial infection of their reproductive has been subject of study of various authors many of these studies show that several species of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium spp, Corynebacterium haemolyticum, Pseudomona fluorescens, B. spp, Micrococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.) may be present in the internal parts of the reproductive system of the female as normal flora which indicates that not all the existing in the reproductive bacterial flora is pathogenic

The use of washing for the treatment of uterine infections is common in the bovine species; however in the equine species is not set this type of therapy due to the sensitivity before the horse endometrium contact with the quimioterapeuticos used for the purpose and the risk that can occur in the management, both for the medical and for the mare.

The problems of infertility are low in small herds in which may be a strict control and selection of mares and studs, in contrast, such problems increase in large populations
The cases of infectious infertility occur mainly in mares with bad formation vulvar and senile mares mares with multiple births.
The Mare estrous cycle.

Adequate knowledge of estrous cycle allows us to assess correctly events that occur during the same, in this way can be a diagnosis right to provide a better treatment for the mares with infectious infertility.

Estrous cycle is defined as the period between two ovulaciones accompanied by signs of estro, or between two ovulaciones that occur when progesterone concentrations are bása_ them (less than 1 ng/ml).

Some mares tend present anovulatory estros during the anestro, and other mares ovulan during the cycle, lutea when concentrations of progesterone are high.
The average duration of the mares estrous cycle is 21 days, but are normal estrales cycles of nineteen to twenty-three days. The cycle can be divided in two stages, of sexual responsiveness called estro and lasts between five and seven days; the stage of right-handed or phase lutea that lasts average of 14 to 15 days, during which the Mare unacceptable to the garañon because you have a producer of progesterone luteo body.

The interval between the regression of the luteo body and following ovulation is called phase Follicularis (estro). Duration of this phase depends on the degree of development that has the ovarian follicle at the beginning of the regression of the luteo, the speed Follicularis from that time growth and the size required by the follicle ovulate body.

These events are affected primarily by the time of the year by which the duration of the Follicularis phase tends to be longer at the beginning of the reproductive season that half of the same. The duration of the Follicularis phase also is affected by individual variations and race. The diameter of the largest follicle influences in the luteolisis, the start of the following estro, ovulation and the duration of the right-handedness. The largest follicular size at the beginning of the estro this follicle reached ovulate faster and will therefore be shorter the estro.

ESTRO: is the period during which the mare is sexually responsive to the garañon and the reproductive is ready to welcome and transport of sperm, finally happening ovulation.
During the dominant follicle estro secret large amounts of estrogen, which leads to the sexual responsiveness. Also estrogens cause changes in the characteristics of the uterus, uterine folds become more prominent and the uterus to palpation is floppy and edematous.

As advances the estro the vaginal mucosa is hiperemica, and intense pink to the vaginoscopia, occurs edema in cervix and secretions increase in quantity and consistency. The ovulation occurs approximately 24 to 40 and eight hours before the end of the estro.

RIGHT-HANDED: is the period during which the female is not responsive to the garañon and the reproductive tract is preparing to receive and maintain the gestation. After ovulation Follicularis cavity begins to fill with blood, forming a hemorrhagic fever, body which is easily palpable twelve hours after ovulation.

Luteo is a promotional temporary gland progesterone that will keep working for 14 to 15 days until your luteolisis.

GOALS AND ASSUMPTIONS

General objective: to get best rates of fertility through the use of uterine washes to combat infectious infertility in dedicated mares problems playback.

Particular objective: count with intrauterine alternative therapy for the treatment of infectious infertility in yeguas problem and increase the number of yeguas pregnant women on farms equine playlist.

Scenario: uterine washes are useful for troubleshooting infectious infertility in mares and improve fertility rates

Materials and methods:

Seven yeguas problem with uterine infection and seven yeguas witness clinically healthy (of a herd of sixty-two reproductive mares)
A garañón to recelado.
Hisópos for endometrial exfoliation in decision digitalcamera for general bacteriological examination and susceptibility.
Fourteen means of transport Stuart for bacteriological examination general and susceptibility.
Hielera and refrigerant for transport of samples.
Swabs for endometrial exfoliation developing endometrial Pap smear.
Porta objects and cubreobjetos for endometrial PAP.
Haematoxylin by Harris, colouring OG6, colouring as 50 ethanol (50, 70, 80 and 96 per cent), xilol water for papanicolaou in endometrial smear stain.
An electron microscope with objective 40 X.
Seven Foley catheter for intrauterine infusion.
Physiological saline solution for intrauterine infusions.
Gentamicin.
Sulfanilamida.
PGF2a.
Especulo vaginal for horses.
An ultrasound portable with linear transducer five MHz.
Gel vaginal lubricants.
Surgeon (latex) gloves.
Insemination gloves.
Elastic bandage.
Neutral SOAP.
An artificial vagina.
Diluyente for semen.
Pipetas to artificial insemination of horses.
Gel not spermicide lubricant.

Synchronized all mares in PGF2a study 5 mg/total dose

Was general examination of the yeguas witness and mares problem and assessed general conditions of the reproductive transrectal palpation, vaginoscopio and ultrasound.

Was general bacteriological examination the mares witness and yeguas problem, in order to know that bacteria are in the womb, samples obtained by means of hisopado exfoliativo at the stage of estro, endometrial and moved to the laboratory in hielera and refrigerant in transport stuart.

Were smear for endometrial cytology in the yeguas witness and mares problem, the samples were obtained by means of hisopado exfoliativo endometrial and i stain with papanicolaou.
Found the stage of all the mares in study by means of recelado journal and palpation transrectal ultrasound estrous cycle.

Were uterine washes to the mares problem under the following order: washing with physiological, saline washed with physiological saline and infusion of gentamicin, washed with physiological saline and infusion of sulfanilamida.

The results of the uterine washes ultrasonic evaluated.
Was natural mount or inseminó with fresh semen according to each case request
Was consideration of gestation ultrasonic sixteen days to the waste mares

Results:

The uterine washes were with physiological saline solution offered little therapeutic results helped evacuate the septic contents of the uterus but be conceived only a yegua problem using this type of washing.

The washing with gentamicin were effective, is conceived a Mare problem through this washing but disadvantage found was the excess of irritation to the endometrium.

The washing with sulfanilamida provided better solving cases of infectious, infertility achieved promote three of the seven mares problem, does not cause endometrial irritation and as a wide spectrum antibiotic acts as effectively as bactericide.

The yeguas witness positive four submitted to the diagnosis of gestation sixteen days of be served seven mares cycle number two. The remaining three were given cycle service number three, were diagnosed sixteen days and were positive results in two yeguas. In the cycle number four gave service to the Mare I am not gestante in the two previous cycles and you became diagnosis of gestation ultrasonic sixteen days enhancing positive.

The mares problem offered satisfactory results for the be gestadas five of seven mares problem of intrauterine chemotherapeutic treatment.

Discussion:

In this study organisms found in the general bacteriological cultivation of the yeguas problem were: Klepsiella oxitoca, Escherichia coli, Actinomyces pyogenes, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Proteus mirabilis, Klepsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomona aeuroginasa and Staphylococcus aureus. of the yeguas witness: Klepsiella pneumoniae, albus Corynebacterium, faecal streptococcus Staphilococcus Staphilococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Taylorella equigenitalis coinciding with the above by Bribiesca, Elliot, MC KINNON and Scout. Those who claim that these organisms are normal flora of the horse reproductive and that pathogens become when the uterine environment is altered by replay events inflammatory processes and not an adequate response from uterine defence mechanisms is generated.

The presence of more than a neutrofilo for every ten epithelial cells in the endometrial smear the yeguas problem with stain by means of the technique of papanicolaou reveal an inflammatory in the endometrium process activity such as demonstrated di Fiore, Hernández and MC KINNON studies

The Elimination of inflammation, previous intrauterine, antibiotic therapy as it suggest Cole, Ginther and Nelly increases cups of fertility in the yeguas problem, enhancing this a satisfactory solution in the processes of metritis and equine endometritis.


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Conclusions:

Found that uterine washing less efficiency are undertaken with physiological saline solution, average efficiency are washing with gentamicin and which offer greater margin of utility to resolve problems of infectious infertility are washing made with sulfanilamida.

The yeguas witness were gestation of 100 %, considering that due to low fertility in equine two yeguas index received two cycles service and one in three cups.

The treated mares (yeguas problem) presented cups of gestation of the 71.4 %, confirming that the uterine washes in horses are useful for resolving cases of infectious infertility.